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  Title Toughness of EW pipe seam welds: fractography and fracture path observations on Charpy-V-notch impact specimens from contemporary pipe steels
  Author(s) Dr Su Xu, James A. Gianetto, Dr William R. Tyson, and Shinya Matsuno  
  Abstract THIS PAPER PRESENTS results of post-test examinations of Charpy specimens from contemporary electric-welded pipe notched in the seam weld with the objective of analysing mechanisms of bond-line (BL) or near-BL fracture, especially those exhibiting low Charpy toughness. Fractography revealed that oxide penetrators were the main cause of some low CVN values, but in some cases of cleavage fracture no specific flaw features could be identified related to the initiation event. In the cleavage initiation region of some specimens, there were indications of oxide clusters or pancaked layers on elongated facets that were joined by ductile ligaments. Metallographic sections showed that the notches were placed close to intended locations for the examined specimens. For the two specimens notched 0.5 mm from the BL at the examined cross-sections, fracture paths proceeded predominantly straight from the notch and did not deviate into the BL.  
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