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  Title Mitigation measures for the stability of pipelines in liquefiable soils
  Author(s) Massimina Castiglia, Dr Salvatore Morgante, Dr Agostino Napolitano, and Prof. Filippo Santucci de Magistris  
  Abstract DISPLACEMENTS OF A BURIED pipeline in case of liquefaction can be due to the buoyancy effect of the hydraulic thrust when the pipe is under the water table level, or floating due to earthquake forces. The effects of displacement on a pipe can be remarkable because of the potential associated damage. Looking at the transverse section of the pipeline, this research illustrates an overview of the methods aimed at ensuring the stability of this class of structure crossing a liquefied area. One of the problems in mitigation techniques for these systems is their lack of standardization, because of the variable soil characteristics along the pipeline. The proposal of new techniques needs a complete state-of-the-art framework to generalize the solutions, as well as possible improvements to their applicability. An overview of the existing methods is presented, and new perspectives in mitigation measures are shown, in order to clarify the effectiveness of their application and provide some important tools for further developments.  
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