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  Title The techno-economics of a phased approach to developing a UK carbon dioxide pipeline network
  Author(s) Saulat Lone, Dr Tim Cockerill, and Prof. Sandro Macchietto  
  Abstract A PHASED APPROACH to developing a CCS pipeline network would see an initial ‘backbone’ system constructed to collect carbon dioxide from the very largest sources. Once the backbone was in place, it might be possible to add a large number of smaller sources for relatively little additional cost. This paper analyses the techno-economics of a phased approach to rolling-out a comprehensive UK CO2 onshore pipeline network. We have developed a series of idealized scenarios where, initially, a new UK network is established to carry emissions from large-scale producers of carbon dioxide, defined here as more than 3Mtonnes per annum. In a second phase of development, medium-scale emitters are added to the network. A final third phase incorporates small producers with emissions in the range 0.5-1 Mtonnes per annum. For all scenarios, two different approaches to network construction have been compared, one using intermediate re-pressurization stations and one relying only on initial pressurization. Our results compare the construction and transportation costs of the different network configurations in each scenario, indicating the cost per tonne of CO2 transport. While there are some benefits offered to smaller sources by a phased approach, a rule of diminishing returns operates, with each tier experiencing an increase in marginal transport costs. The sensitivity of the costs to changes in the network configuration and design assumptions is investigated.  
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