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  Title Protection of pipelines from ice gouging
  Author(s) Tony King  
  Abstract Since a substantial portion of the world’s remaining petroleum reserves are in Arctic offshore regions and other offshore ice-frequented environments, oil and gas development activities in these locations will increase to satisfy increasing energy demands. Consequently, more subsea pipelines (flowlines, subsea tiebacks, and export pipelines) will be constructed in environments where the seabed is subjected to gouging by ice, requiring the evaluation of the magnitude of the risk and requirements for protection of pipelines from ice gouging. The terms ice gouge and ice scour are synonymous, but gouge will be used here for consistency. The only proven technique for the protection of pipelines from ice gouging is trenching. However, the trenching process itself will not be addressed here; the development of trenching technologies capable of operating in hostile environments and attaining the trench depths required for adequate protection is the subject of on-going research programmes such as the Trenching Joint-Industry Project currently being conducted by Petroleum Research Atlantic Canada (PRAC). Rather, the assessment of required pipeline burial depths will be the primary focus.  
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